Oudh oil, also known as Agarwood oil, is a fragrant distillation derived from the resinous heartwood of the Aquilaria tree, a genus native to Southeast Asia.

The name ‘Oudh’ originates from the Arabic word ‘al-oud’, which translates to ‘wood’, but the substance itself is anything but mundane.

However, not all Aquilaria trees produce this resin. The process begins when the tree’s heartwood is infected by a specific type of mold. As a defense mechanism, the tree produces a dark, aromatic resin to combat the infection. This resin-infused wood is known as Agarwood, and it’s from this precious resource that the Oudh oil is derived.

The extraction of Oudh oil is no small feat. It involves a complex distillation process that can take weeks to complete. In fact, the rarity and laborious nature of its production are what make Oudh oil one of the most expensive essential oils in the world.

The Production Process

After harvesting the Agarwood, the production of Oudh oil commences. The most common method used is steam distillation, which involves several stages. First, the Agarwood is soaked in water for a specific period, ranging from a few days to several weeks. This process softens the wood and allows the resin to be more easily extracted.

Next, the soaked Agarwood is placed in a specialized distillation apparatus, where steam is passed through the wood, vaporizing the aromatic compounds in the resin. The steam, now carrying the fragrant molecules, is then condensed back into a liquid, which is collected in a separate container. This liquid contains both Oudh oil and water.

To separate the Oudh oil from the water, the liquid is left to stand for a while, allowing the oil to naturally rise to the surface. The oil is then carefully skimmed off and collected. This process is known as decanting.

Fragrance Profile

Oudh oil has a unique scent profile that’s complex and compelling. The aroma is deep, rich, and woody, with hints of sweet and spicy undertones. Depending on the origin of the Agarwood and the extraction method, the scent can also present subtle variations, ranging from sweet and fruity to dark and smoky.

Though its intense aroma might be overwhelming to some, Oudh oil is highly prized in the perfume industry. Its robust and long-lasting scent makes it a favored ingredient in luxury perfumes. It’s also known for its ability to ‘fix’ or stabilize more volatile fragrance components, increasing the longevity of the perfume on the skin.

Quality Control and Aging

The quality of Oudh oil can vary significantly depending on factors, such as the origin of the Agarwood, the extraction method, and the skill of the distiller.

In some cases, Oudh oil is aged for several years to refine and enhance its aroma.


As the demand for Oudh oil continues to grow, so does the need for its sustainable production. The future lies in responsible sourcing and cultivation practices that not only meet the global demand but also ensure the survival of the Aquilaria species. Various research and conservation initiatives are already underway to achieve this.

The enchanting allure of Oudh oil, with its unique scent and cultural significance, ensures its place as a treasured substance in the world.